Smart solutions for urbanizing areas of the world
Climate change, urbanisation and industrialization increase pressure on the limited above and underground space. This calls for smart, integrated solutions and approaches, e.g. in spatial planning and the use of ecosystem services.
Topics under this theme are:
2a) Nature-based solutions and ecosystem service implementation and valuation
2b) Sustainable use & spatial planning of the subsurface
2c) Balancing groundwater quality and quantity (European Water framework Directive, competing uses, floods and droughts)
2d) Restoring urban – rural balances (restoring nitrogen and other mineral cycles, urban farming, etc)